Other terms

BSA (bit stream access): Regulated bit stream access is a high-speed link which Swisscom sets up on the last mile (on a metallic pair cable from the local exchange to the home) and makes available to other telecoms service providers (TSP) as an upstream service at a price regulated by the government. TSPs can use this link, for example, to offer their customers broadband services or fast Internet access.

Collocation: Collocation is governed by the Ordinance on Telecommunications Services (Verordnung über Fernmeldedienste, FDV). The market-dominant provider offers alternative providers non-discriminatory access to the required locations so that they can use the location and install and operate their own telecommunications systems at that location.

ComCo (Competition Commission): ComCo enforces the Federal Cartel Act, the aim of which is to safeguard against the harmful economic or social impact of cartels and other constraints on competition in order to foster competition. ComCo combats harmful cartels and monitors market-dominant companies for signs of anti-competitive conduct. It is also responsible for examining mergers and issuing statements of position on official decrees that affect competition.

ComCom (Federal Communications Commission): ComCom is the decision-making authority for telecommunications. Its primary responsibilities include issuing concessions for use of the radio frequency spectrum as well as basic service licences. It also provides access (unbundling, interconnection, leased lines, etc.), approves national numbering plans and regulates the conditions governing number portability and freedom of choice of service provider.

COSO/COSO ERM (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission): COSO is a voluntary, private-sector US organisation whose goal is to improve the quality of financial reporting through ethical conduct, effective internal controls and good corporate management. The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework is an extension of COSO’s Internal Control Framework.

ERM (Enterprise Risk Management):ERM is a Group-wide management system that ensures the assessment, handling and reporting of significant risks at Group level as well as Group-company level.

Ex-ante: In an ex-ante regime, the particulars of the regulated offerings (commercial, technical and operating conditions) must be approved by a government authority (authorisation obligation). The conditions approved by the authority (for example, price) are known to the parties using the regulated services. There is legal provision for the affected providers to establish that the price has been correctly determined.

Ex-post: In an ex-post regime, the parties must agree all possible aspects of the contractual content (primacy of negotiation). In the event of a dispute, the authorities decide only on the points on which the parties have been unable to agree (objection principle).

FTE (full-time equivalent): Throughout this report, FTE is used to denote the number of full-time equivalent positions.

Full access: Full access in connection with unbundling means providing alternative telecommunications service providers with access to subscriber lines for the purpose of using the entire frequency spectrum of metallic pair cables.

Hubbing: Hubbing relates to the trading of telephone traffic with other telecommunication operators.

Interconnection: Interconnection means linking up the systems and services of two TSPs so as to enable the logical interaction of the connected telecoms components and services and to provide access to third-party services. Interconnection allows the customer of one provider to communicate with the subscribers of another provider. Under the terms of the Federal Telecommunications Act, market-dominant TSPs are required to allow their competitors interconnection at cost-based prices (LRIC, see below).

ISO (9001, 14001–14064, 15504, 27001, 31000): The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draws up international standards in all fields with the exception of electricity and electronics, for which the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is responsible, and with the exception of telecommunications, for which the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is responsible. Together, these three organisations form the WSC (World Standards Cooperation). The relevant ISO standards are ISO 9001 Quality Management System – Requirements; ISO 14001 to ISO 14064 Environmental Management System; ISO 15504 Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination (SPICE); ISO 27001 Information Technology – IT Security Techniques – Information Security Management Systems – Requirements; ISO 31000 Risk Management Principles and Guidelines. These standards govern the principles and general requirements for the risk management process.

Last mile: Also referred to as the local loop, the last mile denotes the subscriber access line between the subscriber access point and the local exchange. In Switzerland, as in most other countries, access to the last mile is regulated (unbundling).

LRIC (Long-Run Incremental Costs): LRIC is the method defined by the Ordinance on Telecommunications Services (Verordnung über Fernmeldedienste, FDV) for calculating regulating prices. It is future-oriented and therefore creates economically efficient investment incentives.

OFCOM (Federal Office of Communications) OFCOM deals with issues related to telecommunications and broadcasting (radio and television), and performs official and regulatory tasks in these areas. It prepares the groundwork for decisions by the Federal Council, the Federal Department for Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) and the Federal Communications Commission (ComCom).

Termination charges: Termination charges are levied by a network operator for forwarding calls to another third-party network (e.g. calls from Orange to Swisscom or from Sunrise to Orange).

Unbundling: Unbundling of the last mile (Unbundling of the Local Loop, ULL) enables fixed-network competitors without their own access infrastructure to access customers directly at non-discriminatory conditions based on original cost. The prerequisite for ULL is the presence of a market-dominant provider. There are two types of unbundling: Unbundling at the exchange (unbundling of the local loop/ULL or LLU, referred to as TAL in Switzerland), currently available at around 600 unbundled locations, and unbundling at the neighbourhood distribution cabinet (sub-loop unbundling, referred to as T-TAL in Switzerland), in which Swisscom’s competitors have so far shown no interest.